Ursus americanus, like Castor canadensis and Branta canadensis are spelled with all lowercase species names in the Linnaeal nomenclature system developed by Carlus Linnaeus. In all cases, the spellings of a species’ domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family and genus is capitalized and yet it’s species is not; in this example this fact is despite these species having been named after North American nations. Note also that relative to the photograph I just took of an American black bear sow and her cubs: the genus “Ursus” is also in the namesake of two constellations in our northern hemisphere skies (visible when weather permits to most viewers above the Tropic of Capricorn upon the upcoming Winter Solstice). Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, better known as the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper, circle Polaris, which is the North Star, amidst the Diurnal heavens known to Galileo before his inquisition. Often, basic latitude can be determined by sighting the geostationary star Polaris with a sextant or compass/inclinometer. However, and perhaps causal of Hamlet’s “North by Nortwest” madness: magnetic compass headings declinate to the northwest of Polaris’s true north, due to some geomagnetic function of magma.

Remember: when you look at a map and consider latitude; “Lat. is Flat”, and longitudinal meridians run in perpendicular fashion to sextant sightable latitudinal meridians. Inclination to Polaris equates to your latitude. Compared to sextants and inclinometers, determination of longitude requires the more complicated use of a chronograph; a device that changed the world sometime during the age of sail, and might be said to have initiated a sapien migration from Europe to North and South America. Look for the Ursus constellations soon… near Polaris.

Compasses, sextants, sundials, inclinometers, transits, chronographs, and even reel tapes and Biltmore sticks, tidal charts, and the tools and instruments of maps and chart reading can be great for education and study.

Further, the origins of these conceptual frameworks within which humanity enumerates and quantifies our earth can be found in history, philosophy and the political sciences of this epoch.

You may also like to read http://www.STRIGIFORM.science/Eden